Tag Archive: Witchcraft



Wicca is a personal, positive religion that is based on respect of nature and celebration of all things that exists in the physical and ethereal world. Practitioners of Wicca follow the precepts of Shamanism, believed to be the first "religion" on Earth.

Most practitioners of Wicca commune with the Goddess and God during rituals that allow them to understand and guide these energies which created our Universe. These rituals are usually enhanced by the use to tools, chants, music, dancing, etc. that increases the practitioner's mental acuity and intuition to high levels not easily evident in daily life.

These altered states of consciousness allowed human beings to communicate with the powerful energies of the Universe and persuade them to move in the direction of their intentions. Stated simply, many practitioners of Wicca are able to change the direction of their future. This ability of these practitioners is called Magick and the actions that are required to perform Magick are called Spells.

Wiccans use Magick to effect change in their lives as well as in the lives of others who request their help. By communing with the deities and listening to the messages from nature, they understand what needs to be done and go about doing it.

The most important rule of the Wicca (or the Craft as it is called) is that people can choose to do anything so long as it doesn't harm anyone. Wiccans believe in reincarnation and the law of Karma which decries that whatever we do to others will return to us three fold. According to this dogma, there will be no bad witches, for as soon as they do dreadful things to others, they will be destroyed.

Wiccans are called practitioners and not followers because they do not "follow" anyone. This way of life believes that each one of us is capable of communing and communicating with the Powerful energies that created life.

Magick is used in many ways. Some witches can use their minds to control the energies. Others use tools such as the Athame, the Besom, the Wand, Chalice, etc. Wicca is a very personal religion and communing with the Deities may be performed anywhere since the energies exist everywhere.

Most celebrations are held outdoors if possible because the Wicca practitioners believe that nature can cleanse and purify our surroundings easily. Also, communing with the deities mean communing with nature, so the best place for this meeting would be where most of the energies exist.

Newcomers to this way of life will first need to learn the art of meditation so that they can strengthen their concentration and focus regardless of whatever distractions exist in the environment. By practicing Magickal rituals religiously and increasing their self-confidence, these rituals help to firm up the foundation of their practice.

Results of our spells depend on many reasons

There are several types of Magick. The ritual that uses different colors and shapes of candles is called Candle Magick. Other forms of Magick use herbs and spices, plants and twigs, Gem stones and rocks, and various other natural items for rituals.
Rose Ariadne has been practicing ancient forms of Witchcraft for over 25 years. Get more info about Wiccan Magick here: http://www.askroseariadne.com/editorials/WitchcraftWiccanMagickWhatisMagick.html


Modern Witchcraft is both the product of evolution and invention. For a thousand years, traditional witches had to remain underground for fear of persecution, torture and death. Whilst many books were published on the topic of Witchcraft during the Middle Ages, the content was without exception, aimed at sketching the Craft as an evil, maleficent practice. The grotesque image of the Craft was fed by unadulterated lies and fabrications by those who claimed to be experts. These self-proclaimed experts also happened to be lackeys of Rome and supporters of that genocidal period labeled the "Burning Times" today.

The first well researched and impartial study of Witchcraft was undertaken by Egyptologist, folklorist and anthropologist, Margaret Murray, who published "The Witch-Cult in Western Europe" in 1921. She was also a close friend of Gerald Gardner, who is seen to be the founder of Modern Witchcraft together with Doreen Valiente. Whilst Witchcraft started re-emerging from the proverbial broom closet in the 1930s, it was only after the repeal of anti-Witchcraft Acts in the 1950s that a notable resurgence started taking place.

Sadly, Traditional Witchcraft was all but completely lost. Hence, only some of the original practices survived. Where practices lacked, these had to be reinvented or borrowed and amended. The subsequent additions and changes saw the birth of a new pagan movement: Wicca - a modern form of Witchcraft. Perhaps an overview of the differences will show that there is not that great a difference between the Old Ways and the New Ways after all.

Learning the Craft

Traditional Witchcraft is an oral tradition. Knowledge and practices were transmitted in person from one generation of witches to the next. Nothing was ever documented: perhaps out of fear, perhaps because of illiteracy or perhaps a little of both. Modern Witches can study the craft in a coven setup or on their own as solitaries. The book stores and the internet offer a large variety of high quality information to those wanting to learn the Craft.

Gardner developed the Book of Shadows concept. The Book of Shadows will typically contain the Creation Myth, the Rede, the Coven's Laws, a herbal grimoire, correspondences, recipes for potions, oils, brews and incense, correspondences, a list of tools, ritual descriptions and Spells, amongst others. Considering the vast amount of wisdom and knowledge lost during the Burning Times, this is most appropriate practice - one that the vast majority of Wiccans diligently adhere to.
Rose Ariadne has been practicing ancient forms of Witchcraft for over 25 years. Get more info about modern witchcraft traditions here:
http://www.askroseariadne.com/editorials/modern-witchcraft-tradition-reinvented.html


The written word is a powerful medium. Around the time when the alphabet was first created, Goddesses were worshipped in most parts of the world. The word "witchcraft" did not exist and the words "pagan", "heathen" did not exist either. Cultures lived by following natural cycles of life by taking care not to destroy more than they had to. Words written, mostly from a male perspective started the downfall of the feminine themed ways of life including witchcraft.

There is evidence of temples and places of worship where Goddesses were revered and rituals performed for the good of mankind. Fertility rituals, seasonal rituals and other ceremonies were conducted usually officiated by women as they are the people nature had chosen to carry on human existence.

Traditional witchcraft is the label given to the practice of witchcraft that is not Wiccan and "non new-age" in origin. Traditional witchcraft is the collection of witchcraft beliefs and rituals that used to be practiced all over the world.
Since human beings have the capability to think imaginatively, we have always tried to distinguish the supernatural and experience the awe-inspiring possibilities. Most cultures have ways to alter states of consciousness and try to connect to our origins or "the source". In a few countries, where the Europeans could not completely annihilate and destroy the magickal cultures and their ways of life, these traditions still flourish.

The advent of religious writing was what started the vilification and defamation of natural ways of life. A bunch of disconnected drivel was compiled together in the name of God, and people, obsessed with ignorance greed, tried to "conquer" the rest of the world to "save them from sin". In the name of God they plundered, looted and murdered innocent people. In the name of God, they destroyed ("colonized") many beautiful nature loving cultures that were flourishing in different parts of the world.

Traditional witchcraft, which was the way of life in most of the world, was a motley mix of inspiration, meditation, spell working, divination and fortune-telling. It was concerned with the powers that exist in the netherworld as well as life after death. It was fascinated by nature and with ways to control or change the direction of the wind, the flow of water and the movement of the planets.

It did not have the Wiccan belief of the three-fold law of returns. Most witches were free to do any ritual that could potentially damage their lives as well as that of others. However, they were not aware of the consequences of their actions.

Traditional witches believed in multiple Gods and Goddesses, each of them having a specific power or duty. There were local Gods, some having more power than others, Gods in human form, animal form or other mixed forms. In contrast,
Wiccans believe that there are only two divine beings, The Goddess and the God.

Many other names may be used in rituals, but they are all"manifestations" of these two powerful entities. Wiccans also believe that the God and Goddess may merge into the almighty "One" who combines the powers of both.
Rose Ariadne has been practicing ancient forms of Witchcraft for over 25 years. Get more info about traditional witchcraft here: http://www.askroseariadne.com/editorials/9traditionalwitchcraft.html


Making up your mind to turn a witch can have an effect upon every facet of your life. It is a course of conduct that is frequently called into question and misinterpreted. It is highly essential to prove yourself as a first-rate witch. Even though becoming an excellent witch may not automatically come true, it is useful and asserting to take appropriate measures that will back your aspiration of turning a good witch. An important measure you can take is to find a trustworthy and reputed witchcraft store that can supply you a wide range of minerals, crystal stones, ritual candles, pendulums, incense, herbals, metaphysical items, and many more Wiccan and Paggan items. Such stores also assist you in enriching your knowledge through a good collection of paranormal and occult books.

You should maintain a diary of your thinking and beliefs pertaining to your job as a witch. Do introspection why you have preferred to become a witch and try out what first prompted you to adopt the role of witchery. Performing this self-examination will aid you in proving whether or not you are actually truthful in your endeavors to be a high-quality witch. Honesty plays a crucial role in the practice of good witchcraft.

As mentioned earlier, a witchcraft and mineral store can make your witchery an extremely fruitful experience. Many handy occult books are found in this store. These books comprise formulas, meditations and magical spells that the witchcraft professional has employed to taste a great amount of success. Most of the time, such books turn out to be a household property and are passed down to succeeding generations. Occult books go back hundred of years and propose that they were exceedingly confidential and watchfully defended from poking eyes.

Crystals and gemstones are an integral part of any witchcraft and mineral store run offline or online. You can rein in the energy of these precious stones to your advantage. Gemstones and crystals are frequently used by a large number of witchery professionals to amplify their paranormal functioning. It is thought that their vibrating frequencies can be brought into harmony with the supernatural intention close at hand, an occurrence existing by nature called the principle of entrainment.

People practicing witchery can also purchase many different dried herbs from an online witchcraft store. Herbs form a major part in developing your witchcraft items and are employed in spells, meditations, benedictions, candle magic, witches' Sabbath rites, etc. A handy entry kit of herbs might consist of basil, rosemary, mullein or flannel leaf, mugwort, nettles and lavender or lilac.

Ritual candles are in great demand in contemporary witchery. Both new and seasoned practitioners use them for some kind of candle magic that usually involves calling upon the four elements such as earth, fire, water and air. The color of these candles is also important as each color portrays unique attributes.

Another interesting item found in a typical witchcraft and mineral store is a dowsing pendulum. Dowsing is a method of interpreting information by the means of extraordinary observation. Briefly speaking, it is the phenomenon of obtaining replies to yes and no queries with the application of a pendulum.
Mr. Vikas is a Seo Expert providing, Mineral and Witchcraft store - A leading name in the arena of e stores proffering products such as healing gemstones,gemstone jewelry,and a myriad of other occult and Wiccan products. In the occult shop there are ritual candles,talismans,pendulum,metaphysical items,Wiccan and paggan items.


Fifteen to twenty years ago good books on the topic of Witchcraft were as rare as hens' teeth. The subsequent increase in religious tolerance towards the pagan community and the steady re-emergence of Witches from the broom closet, have resulted in an abundance of really good books on the topics of paganism and Witchcraft.

Selecting the best three or even the best ten would be an impossibility. Each author has his or her own unique way of relating the philosophy, history, tradition and practical aspects of the Craft. The Craft is very often practiced by Eclectics, each having incorporated their own special elements into their practice, thus creating greater resonance with their respective beliefs.

I have my favorite authors, much like the next Witch. So, the three books I am about to review were written by Cunningham, Ravenwolf and Starhawk respectively and available in most countries world-wide. The books are very different - one from the other - in some ways. Ravenwolf writes for the young and the young at heart. Starhawk writes for the serious Witch. Cunningham writes for the gentle. Although diverse, these three authors and their many works over the years are probably some of the best available on bookshelves today. It is however up to each individual to decide which of the books (if not all) are the "right" ones to buy.

Solitary Witch by Silver Ravenwolf (ISBN 0-7387-0319-2: Llewellyn)

This hefty 590-pager comprises of 5 Parts and takes the format of a Book of Shadows. Ravenwolf covers all aspects of the Wiccan Religions and Mysteries in Part 1. Part 2 is dedicated to Objects and Tools. Part 3 provides detailed information on the proficiencies and expertise a Witch needs to acquire. Magick and Enchantments in Part 4 covers everything from Alchemy to Faeries, offers information on correspondences, astral travel and much, much more. The 5th and final Part shows the practical application of Magick in everyday life.

The book is written in a friendly tone and uses everyday language, which makes it an absolute pleasure to read. As with all Ravenwolf's books, this one too is logically structured, highly informative, entertaining and well researched. In spite of its size, the book comes in at the reasonable price tag of around US$ 30.95. "Solitary Witch" is an excellent buy for anybody who would like to own a single book containing everything conceivable about the Craft.

The Spiral Dance 20th Anniversary Edition by Starhawk (ISBN 0-06-251632-9: Harper San Francisco)

Starhawk is definitely one of the stalwarts of the Craft. Her first edition of this definitive work was in 1979 - a time of great prejudice against all things pagan. She is a peace activist, an eco-feminist, Gaia rights campaigner and forever in the front-line when it comes to the reinstitution of the title "Witch" in its rightful place in society. Starhawk never misses a beat.

Her book is no different. Over the first 41 pages offers a brief, concise and interesting overview of the modern history of Witchcraft and the worldview on Witchcraft. After that, in true Starhawk fashion, she accurately covers all the practical aspects of the Craft: Rituals, Invocations and Magick. Starhawk goes further than most authors in offering exercises (61 in all) to assist Seekers, Novices and Initiates alike in developing the subconscious mind. This development is a critical aspect of magick. The exercises in "The Spiral Dance" are, in my opinion, the best of the best out there.

She concludes the 326-page book with a glance at the future - the future of the Craft. This book is a must in the library of any serious Witch. It is written in Starhawk's typical no-nonsense and no-sacred-cow style and underpinned by the absolute love and passion she has for the Lady, for everything of the Lady and for the Craft. At US$ 17, one can't afford not to buy this book.
Rose Ariadne has been practicing ancient forms of Witchcraft for over 25 years. Get more info about witchcraft book reviews here: http://www.askroseariadne.com/editorials/witchcraft-book-reviews.html


Traditional Wicca and Traditional Witchcraft are frequently confused with one another. Wicca is a neo-pagan nature based religious movement that came into being during the mid 1900s. Out of this movement, traditions such as Gardnerian, Diannic and Faery evolved.

Traditional Witchcraft, on the other hand, is an ancient practice, which has been around for millennia. Its practices, traditions and knowledge were simply handed down from one generation to the next, mostly within the same family circle. In the context of this article, Traditional Witchcraft is viewed to be the shamanistic Craft as practiced in Western Europe over the last 1,000 years.

Traditional Witchcraft Beliefs

Traditional Witchcraft is a one hundred percent oral tradition. Illiteracy and forced secrecy both contributed to the absence of written records. One has to bear in mind that it was not only during the burning times that witches were persecuted. If material was found containing anything that could allude to the fact that the owner of the material was a witch, it would have meant certain death - by brutal means. Hence Traditional Witches did not and still do not keep the Wiccan equivalent of a Book of Shadows. In all truth, the concepts of Grimoires and Books of Shadow are late19th and mid-20th century inventions respectively.

Traditional Witches did not necessarily worship any Deities as a part of their Craft practices. The knee does not bend and the head does not bow, so to speak. The majority of Witches worshiped Nature as an all-powerful force instead. They considered everything, from the energy of the smallest grain of sand through to the energy of the remotest star in the sky, as a part of Nature. Nature in this sense is synonymous with the Universe.

Traditional Witches would generally draw on their own power when performing Magick and call on one or more spirits to lend additional power to their magickal workings. The believed that mortal and spirit worlds are connected and that the spirit world can affect the mortal world. November's Eve (Samhain) was recognized as the only time of the year when the veil between these two worlds was at its thinnest. It is also to the spirit world that the souls of all mortals go after death. There they remain until the time comes for rebirth into the mortal world. Whilst karma forms no part of the Craft, the traditional Witches believe that all souls are reincarnated for a special purpose - one that is revealed as life on earth progresses.
Rose Ariadne has been practicing ancient forms of Witchcraft for over 25 years. Learn more about traditional witchcraft:
http://www.askroseariadne.com/editorials/traditional-witchcraft-during-last-millenium.html


A Brief overview of Wicca:

When witchcraft is practiced as a religion, it is called by the Old English term for witch, Wicca. This term is used to counter all the negative stereotypes that society has given witchcraft. Wicca is primarily a religion that worships nature, and sees all creation as sacred. In fact, all Wiccan holy days follow the cycles of nature and the changes in the seasons. Wicca also worships both a male and female deity, a female Goddess and a male God, who had together created the world and everything in it.

Witchcraft is neither black nor white. Witchcraft is a religion that respects Mother Nature and She is neither completely positive or completely negative, this is the same for witches.

Spells are used by Wiccans, and are a series of rituals and prayers that are conducted in witchcraft to ask for divine help in a certain aspect of life. All spells must adhere to the witchcraft code of conduct, meaning that any spells used to harm another person is forbidden. In witchcraft, spells may also be changed or adapted to suit a Wiccan's personality or specific wishes in casting the spell.

What exactly is witchcraft, spells, and magick?

Twenty years ago, I asked myself those same questions, and I'm still learning the answers. My journey started at 15 years of age, with a very understanding mother and a visit to New Age Shop. I remember entering the shop with a sense of awe, and instantly being put at ease by a wonderfully sweet aroma that hung over the bookcases. Yet, out of all the potions, oils, and books that filled the place, the one thing that stood out to me the most was the man behind the counter. He looked more like George Clooney than something out of Halloween Fairytales, and that was my first lesson. Witches look just like everyone else. Of course you may run into the occasional witch who looks more fiction than fact but other than those, most are just your average Joe, the majority tend to choose to blend in as much as possible. Why? Not everyone is armed with 21st century thinking, and in some cases, witches are put into the same category as Satanists, heathens, and just generally bad people.

I eventually took more interest in magick, oh and not my spelling of magick. Witches refer to spells and divine help as magick, not to be confused with magic, which we consider to be what you would see at a show, a magician sawing a woman in half, card tricks, etc.. Magick, however, is sacred to all Wiccans. Ah yes, back to my story, I eventually took more interest in magic and at the age of 35 purchased an old building in New Jersey and turned into one of the state's only Wiccan Temples. I currently live at home with my two wonderful children and my familiar (husband as most people call it) enjoying life and being at one with nature. I currently make a living supporting my family by offering services at my temple and through my website http://www.witchcraftspellsnow.com.
My name is Tasha and I have been a witch for 20 years. I hope this article helps anyone who is curious about Wicca. Currently, I own Ill-Alli Temple in Northeastern USA and own a witchcraft spells site, WitchcraftSpellsNow.com.

Witchcraft Book Reviews


In your own words, compare and contrast, and review some of the best books on Witchcraft out there.

Fifteen to twenty years ago good books on the topic of Witchcraft were as rare as hens' teeth. The subsequent increase in religious tolerance towards the pagan community and the steady re-emergence of Witches from the broom closet, have resulted in an abundance of really good books on the topics of paganism and Witchcraft.

Selecting the best three or even the best ten would be an impossibility. Each author has his or her own unique way of relating the philosophy, history, tradition and practical aspects of the Craft. The Craft is very often practiced by Eclectics, each having incorporated their own special elements into their practice, thus creating greater resonance with their respective beliefs.

I have my favorite authors, much like the next Witch. So, the three books I am about to review were written by Cunningham, Ravenwolf and Starhawk respectively and available in most countries world-wide. The books are very different - one from the other - in some ways. Ravenwolf writes for the young and the young at heart. Starhawk writes for the serious Witch. Cunningham writes for the gentle. Although diverse, these three authors and their many works over the years are probably some of the best available on bookshelves today. It is however up to each individual to decide which of the books (if not all) are the "right" ones to buy.

Solitary Witch by Silver Ravenwolf (ISBN 0-7387-0319-2: Llewellyn)

This hefty 590-pager comprises of 5 Parts and takes the format of a Book of Shadows. Ravenwolf covers all aspects of the Wiccan Religions and Mysteries in Part 1. Part 2 is dedicated to Objects and Tools. Part 3 provides detailed information on the proficiencies and expertise a Witch needs to acquire. Magick and Enchantments in Part 4 covers everything from Alchemy to Faeries, offers information on correspondences, astral travel and much, much more. The 5th and final Part shows the practical application of Magick in everyday life.

The book is written in a friendly tone and uses everyday language, which makes it an absolute pleasure to read. As with all Ravenwolf's books, this one too is logically structured, highly informative, entertaining and well researched. In spite of its size, the book comes in at the reasonable price tag of around US$ 30.95. "Solitary Witch" is an excellent buy for anybody who would like to own a single book containing everything conceivable about the Craft.

The Spiral Dance 20th Anniversary Edition by Starhawk (ISBN 0-06-251632-9: Harper San Francisco)

Starhawk is definitely one of the stalwarts of the Craft. Her first edition of this definitive work was in 1979 - a time of great prejudice against all things pagan. She is a peace activist, an eco-feminist, Gaia rights campaigner and forever in the front-line when it comes to the reinstitution of the title "Witch" in its rightful place in society. Starhawk never misses a beat.

Her book is no different. Over the first 41 pages offers a brief, concise and interesting overview of the modern history of Witchcraft and the worldview on Witchcraft. After that, in true Starhawk fashion, she accurately covers all the practical aspects of the Craft: Rituals, Invocations and Magick. Starhawk goes further than most authors in offering exercises (61 in all) to assist Seekers, Novices and Initiates alike in developing the subconscious mind. This development is a critical aspect of magick. The exercises in "The Spiral Dance" are, in my opinion, the best of the best out there.

She concludes the 326-page book with a glance at the future - the future of the Craft. This book is a must in the library of any serious Witch. It is written in Starhawk's typical no-nonsense and no-sacred-cow style and underpinned by the absolute love and passion she has for the Lady, for everything of the Lady and for the Craft. At US$ 17, one can't afford not to buy this book.
Rose Ariadne has been practicing ancient forms of Witchcraft for over 25 years. Get more info about witchcraft book reviews here: http://www.askroseariadne.com/editorials/witchcraft-book-reviews.html
...and ask her any question here: http://www.askroseariadne.com


Starhawk's New Moon Chant for Diana: "Waxing, waxing, growing, growing, Diana's power is flowing, flowing."

Growth of the pagan movement during the mid 20th Century was strongly supported by the rapidly escalating feminist movement of that time. The 1950s marked a 100 years of campaigning for women's rights and the refusal to be treated by society as second rate citizens. Women were asserting their rights and finding their voices. Some went as far as to cut men out of their lives totally.

Commune-style, female only communities emerged. These communities were creative, non-hierarchical, spontaneous, non-violent, pro-earth, and pro-woman. Spiritually, there was no compatibility with the hierarchical patriarchal mainstream religions of the world. Gardner's "Witchcraft Today" published in 1951 resulted in increasing the awareness of Witchcraft. The principle of a Goddess, whose consort is the God, appealed to most pagans as it offered respite from the patriarchy of the mainstream religions. Even so, some feminists were not willing to accept any form of masculinity in their spiritual path. For them "the Goddess grew in importance and the role of the God shrank into obscurity".

This was however NOT the birth of the Dianic Tradition in its modern sense. Unbeknown to many, and unrecognized by most, Egyptologist, folklorist and anthropologist Margaret Murray (1863-1963) should be credited with the early formation of the Dianic Tradition. Murray published "The Witch-Cult in Western Europe" in 1921. In this work, she examined the Inquisition documents and argued that Witchcraft could be traced to pre-Christian times and appeared to be the ancient religion of Western Europe. She went on to explain the evidence that Diana, the feminine Roman deity, was worshiped throughout Europe in "Dianic cults."

Murray later published "The God of the Witches" in 1933 and "The Divine King of England" in 1954, which claimed that most of British royalty had been members of the Dianic Cult. Murray died at age 100 in 1963, the same year her autobiography was released, My First Hundred Years. Murray was a close friend of Gerald Gardner.

The Dianic Tradition, as it stands today, is covered by two schools of thought. The one is called Dianic Wicca, Feminist Dianic Witchcraft, or Women's Spirituality and the other is Danaanic Wicca or "Old Dianic" Paganism. Both were seeds sown by the works of Margaret Murray.

The Dianic Witchcraft branch is believed to have been founded by a hereditary Witch called Z. Budapest. Z and three of her woman friends established the Susan B. Anthony Coven Number 1. This coven worshiped the Goddess in all her forms. Z. Budapest's Dianic Witchcraft consists of women-only covens. There is a strong lesbian presence, although the majority of the covens are open to all women.

The Danaanic branch was founded by Morgan McFarland. This branch "gives primacy to the Goddess in its theology but honors the Horned God as Her Beloved Consort." Covens can comprise of both male and female members or only of a single gender.
Rose Ariadne has been practicing ancient forms of Witchcraft for over 25 years. Get more info about the history and tradition of dianic witchcraft here:
http://www.askroseariadne.com/editorials/dianic-witchcraft-the-history.html


The reign of Elizabeth I, Queen of England during the late 1500s, marked an intellectual era of the Renaissance. Sadly, it also marked an era of intensified persecution of Witches, a persecution supported by the Queen who is said to have been a pious creature - always lending an ear to the clergy and heading their ill-advice. Perhaps she too was concerned about her own safety.

Her mother, Anne Boleyn was accused of being a Witch. Being the daughter of a Witch in those days could very easily be misconstrued by rivals as hereditary, which would undoubtedly result in the loss of the throne and even the loss of life.

Witchcraft practiced during the reign of this Queen is referred to Elizabethan Witchcraft, ironically appearing to offer her the credit for its existence whereas in truth she was partly responsible for its near demise.

As indicated before, the Elizabethan era saw a revival in terms of belief in the supernatural. One would imagine that the intellectually enlightened minds of the late 1500's would view the world very differently to the views held by the likes of Pope Innocent VIII in the 1000's. Whilst, at first glance a contradiction in terms, the dynamics of the sudden availability of information (or misinformation if you like) caused by the commissioning of Johannes Gutenberg's printing press around 1456, explains this phenomenon.

Copious amounts of books were printed - mostly Bibles or Books containing religious themes. Sadly these themes reinforced belief in the supernatural and the authors were mostly Christian protagonists - proponents of the theory that Witchcraft (and by definition Witches) was evil and that they were consorts of the Devil himself. Most of these so-called experts agreed that British Isles were overrun by Witches and that the scourge had to be dealt with without delay.

This led to an increase in Witch hunts and concomitantly to an increase in executions. The fact that the printing press also enabled the publishing of books on Astrology, Alchemy and Magic, merely exacerbated an already burning issue. In 1562, Elizabeth I passed the Elizabethan Witchcraft Act "against Conjurations, Enchantments and Witchcrafts". The Act was certainly more lenient than those in Italy and Spain. It did not combine acts of heresy with acts of Witchcraft. It also offered punishment by hanging, not burning and disallowed the torture of suspects.

But who were the Witches so hated and feared? This is their summarized tale. Once upon a time, before the burnings started, Witches were considered "Wise Ones" by all. They were the mid-wives, the healers, the advisers and the ones who worked magick when magick was needed in someone's life. They enabled discussions with departed loved ones and looked into the future for those who needed a light on their paths.

They were honored and highly regarded. Traditionally an oral tradition, Witchcraft was passed on from Mother to Daughter or Witch to Apprentice - generation upon generation. The Burning Times all but destroyed this tradition. The Craft of the Wise had to resort to stealth to survive and after nearly 500 years of Burning Times, Elizabethan Witches were well underground.
Rose Ariadne has been practicing ancient forms of Witchcraft for over 25 years. Get more info aboutElizabethan witchcraft here:
http://www.askroseariadne.com/editorials/elizabethan-witchcraft-era-of-persecution.html