Even in very ancient times the commentators on the Vedanta philosophy formed themselves into the three celebrated Hindu sects of dualists, qualified non - dualists,and non - dualists. The ancient commentaries are perhaps lost; but they have been revived in modern times by the post - buddhistic commentators, Shankara, Ramanuja, and Madhva. Shankara revived the non - dualistic form; Ramanuja, the qualified non - dualistic form of the ancient commentator Bodhayana; and Madhva, the dualistic form.

In India the sects differ mainly in their philsophy; the difference in rituals is slight, the basis of their philosophy and religion being the same. from their interpretations have arisen three systems of philosophy and sects. One is dualistic, or Dvaita; a second is the qualified non - dualistic, or Vishishtadvaita; and a third is the non - dualistic,or Advaita. Of these the dualistic and the qualified non - dualistic include the largest number of the Indian people. The non - dualists are comparatively few in number. Now I will try to lay before you the ideas that are contained in all these three sects; but before going on,I will make one remark -- that these different Vedanta systems have one common psychology,and that is,the psychology of the Sankhya system. The Sankhya psychology is very much like the psychologies of the Nyaya and Vaisheshika systems, differing only in minor particulars.

All the Vedantists agree on three points. They believe in God, in the Vedas as revealed, and in cycles. We have already considered the Vedas. The belief about cycles is as follows:All matter throughout the universe is the outcome of one primal matter called Akasha; and all force, whether gravitation, attraction or repulsion, or life, is the outcome of one primal force called Prana. Prana acting on Akasha is creating or projecting* the universe. At the beginning of a cycle, Akasha is motionless, unmanifested. Then Prana begins to act, more and more, creating grosser and grosser forms out of Akasha -- plants, animals, men, stars, and so on.
Lecturer, entrepreneur and Fortune 500 business consultant, Vish Writer is the author of the Amazon No 1 bestseller, "The Joy of Becoming God". Visit him at Spiritual SimplicityThe Real Secret

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